|Posted by Rabbi Matityahu Glazerson on March 8, 2011 at 12:53 PM|
The ancient Mayans welcomed spirit into their everyday living. Every movement was lived as a ritual edifice. Their religious perspectives and practices helped align their consciousness with the sanctity and unity of all that was around them. The earth, the deserts, the mountains, the rivers, and the stars were all alive and patterned with meaning. The Mayans belonged to these worlds of nature. They remembered them, maintained them, took care of them, and lived their sacred life with them.
The Mayans are among the oldest of the Mesoamerican peoples. They were a diverse people speaking 31 languages (David Webster, The Fall of the Ancient Maya Thames and Hudson, London 2002, p40). They occupied the geographic areas known today as southeastern Mexico, especially the Yucatan Penninsula, and the Central American areas known today as Honduras, El Salvador, Guatemala, and Belize.
Of the pre-Columbian Americas, the Mayans are the principle people who developed a fully written language. The script is called logosyllabic. Individual symbols ("glyphs") could represent either a word (actually a morpheme) or a syllable; indeed, the same glyph could often be used for both. Recent archaeological finds in Guatemala date the earliest Mayan writing found so far to about 250 BCE. The Mayan culture had spectacular art, monumental architecture with pyramids, and a sophisticated mathematical and astronomical understanding.
It is interesting that in 1935 Sylvanus Griswold Morley wrote,
When the material achievements of the ancient Maya in architecture, sculpture, cermaics, the lapidary arts, feather-work, cotton-weaving and dyeing are added to their abstract intellectual achievements -- invention of the positional mathematics with its concomitant development of zero, construction of an elaborate chronology with a fixed starting point, use of a time-count as accurate as our own Gregorian Calendar, knowledge of astronomy superior to that of the ancient Egyptians and Babylonians -- and the whole judged in the light of their known cultural limitations, which were on par with those of the early Neolithic Age in the Old World, we may acclaim them, without fear of successful contradiction, the most brillian aboriginal people on this planet. (Guidebook to the Ruins of Quirigua)
Some think that the earliest record known of the Maya in Belize date back to 2500 B.C. when they inhabited the area now known as Cuello. Others think that the Mayan civilization began with villages of farmers in the area of Cuello around 2000 BC in an area that has been associated with the ancient Olmec people. Such dates, however, are not certain. The Mayan archeaologist, Arthur Demarest, writes
... the data on the early development of lowland Maya civiliation is currently so poor that it virtually defies synthesis and interpretation. (Ancient Maya, the rise and fall of a rain forest civilization, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, 2007, p. 58)
The truth, however, is that we do not know what may have been going on in the Maya lowlands before about 1000 BC and whether that region had its own precocious Early Preclassic centers with their own original local developments and direct contacts with the other evolving cultures of this period, including those of the Gulf coast Olmec region. (ibid, p. 66)
Archaeological evidence of the preclassic period Mayans in small agricultural communties appear to be dated around 1400-1200 BCE. These archaeological finds include pottery, permanent houses, and outer accouterments of settled life (The Fall of the Ancient Maya p. 44). Centers such as Paso del la Amada and Chiapas had large stone structures that are thought to have been used for ritual feasts.
Indeed, it is certain that the red pottery used for dishes and bowls, called the Swasey pottery, found at Cuello dates from about 1200 BCE - 900 BCE (Nicholas Saunders, Ancient Americas, Sutton, Gloucestershire, 2004, p.75). Other Maya cultural features were found in this period: houses clustered around a central patio; the dead buried beneath the floors of house; maize a staple food; and chert used to make stone tools (Ancient Americas p. 75).
The Mayan Calendar
Perhaps the Mayans are most known for their multiple calendars which have various cycles. Astronomically, the calenders were used for keeping track of the planetary positions of Mercury, Venus, Mars, and Jupiter and predicting astronomical events such as eclipses and sunspot cycles. But these astronomical events were not lived as external. They were lived as internal: each astronomical event was spiritualy tied to a state of being and aliveness.
It is interesting that none of the Mayan languages have a word for time. The Mayans considered time not as linear time but as cyclic. The Mayans believed that the cyclical influences of the past synergistically create the context for the present, and by knowing the context for the present and the past cycles, one can forsee its cyclical influence into the future. Thus the events of one period of linear time would be contextually repeated in another period of linear time occupying the same position in the cycle.
For the purpose of keeping track of cycles,the Mayans had multiple calendars. The Mayan long count calendar, a calendar of 1,872,000 days, slightly more than 5125 years, has been aligned or correlated to our Gregorian calendar. The most commonly held correlation to the beginning of the Mayan long count calendar is Julian Day 584,283, (known as the Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation) although some think 584,285. This puts the beginning of the Mayan calendar to be August 11, 3114 BCE on the proleptic Gregorian calendar or September 6, 3114 BCE on the proleptic Julian calendar. (Note that those, like astronomers, who use the convention that the year that precedes 1 CE is 0 BCE will write 3113 BCE or simply -3113. This is what Arguelles (personal communication) does in his book The Mayan Factor, Bear and Company, Sante Fe, 1987 p. 41.) The Mayans considered as special the time of the ending of a cycle and the beginning of the next. They associated the end of the long count calendar and the beginning of its next cycle as a propitious time in which change and enlightenment would occur.
There are other Mayan calendars with shorter cycles of 20 days, 260 days, 365 days, 52 years. The 13 cycles of 20 days, a total of 260 days, constitutes the sacred calendar, called the Tzolkin. 52 cyles of the 365 day calendar, called the Haab, equals 73 cycles of the 260 day calendar (52x365=73x260). So one sometimes reads, though not quite correctly, that the Mayan 260 day calendar syncs with our solar calendar every 52 years. Our solar year is about 365.2422 days long. The synchronization mentioned in the popular literature is between the Mayan 260 day calendar and the Mayan 365 day calendar.
There are many properties of the pyramids that the Mayans built that correspond to these various cycle lengths. Arguelles, in his book The Mayan Factor, discusses how the various symbols of the Mayans have within their shapes these cycle lengths and other related numbers. He describes how the Mayan calendar, their writing symbols, and their architecture are the keys to a resonance phenomena, a resonance between the Mayan consciousness and the galaxy. Thus the historical events associated with the various calendar times in the cycles become a kind of guide for consciousness in experiencing time, as well as a kind of prophetic history. The internal experience and the historical events of the external world are in resonance. It is no surprise, therefore, that the Mayans were careful historical record keepers. Bernal Diaz del Castillo, who accompanied the Spanish conquistador Cortez, reported that the Mayans had books made from the bark of a tree. In these books they recorded past events and deeds by means of signs and symbols.
The multiple cultures in which the word Maya occurs is also interesting. In the Hindu culture, Maya, is a Sanskrit word meaning the sense-world of the manifold phenomena of physical reality. It is maya which conceals the absolute. Thus maya is an illusion. In the Buddhist culture, Maya is the mother who gave birth to Buddha. In the Greek culture, Maia was the virgin mother of Hermes, who is the god of communication and commerce. One of the seven sister stars in the Pleides group is named Maia. Ancient Ceylon was divided into three provinces and Maya was the central division of the island. The Ceylonese Maya were known for their impressive astronomical knowledge, their architectural marvels, temples, and irrigation ponds. (William Knighton, The History of Ceylon, Colombo Ceylon, 1845.) All this suggests that there is some ancient universal teaching associated with the concept of maya, different parts of which are remembered and modulated by different cultures.
The biblical Enoch was the son of Yered who was the great great grandson of Seth, a son of Adam. Enoch lived 365 years, from 622 to 987 on the Jewish calendar. The beginning of the long count Mayan calendar is taken to be in August of the year 3114 BCE, (-3113). This corresponds to the year 647 on the Jewish calendar. After the Rosh HaShanah holiday in the year 3114 BCE, the year on the Jewish calendar would be 646. From these dates, we can infer that the beginning of the Mayan calendar occurs during the life of Enoch.
According to the Midrash in Seder Hadorot, (Vol 1, p. 89), Enoch served God and despised the wicked people of his generation. He separated from them and hid himself away. One day when he was praying, an angel of God spoke to him telling him to go out from his house and teach the people about the ways of God and the correct ways to live.
In the book Sefer Hayashar, ( see Ancient Tales, ASIN: B000QGVNQS ), we read about Enoch,
He gathered people around him and taught them about God. Word was sent around everywhere announcing that whoever wanted to know the ways of God and the good life should come to Enoch for instruction. Hungry for the truth, people eagerly gathered around him and he taught them the wisdom of God. Thus the people served God all the lifetime of Enoch. Rulers, princes, and judges, all came to hear him. He was loved and respected so much that three hundred rulers proclaimed him king over them. With gentle persuasion he was able to establish peaceful relations between all these rulers. He reigned for two hundred and forty-three years guiding all people in the ways of God.
Seder Hadorot tells that Enoch was the first one to write a book on astronomy. In the pseudepigraph Book of Enoch, a compilation of books detailing the experiences, the prophecies, and teachings of Enoch, there is a book entitled The courses of the Heavenly Luminaries. This is chapters 72 through 82 of the Book of Enoch, and they are devoted to describing the changing times for the rising and the setting of the sun through the solar year, the waxing and waning of the moon through the lunar month and year.
The ancient Greeks identified Enoch with Hermes Trismegistus. The Greeks wrote that Enoch taught the sons of men the art of building cities, the knowledge of the Zodiac, and the course of the Planets. We also find Enoch's association with astronomy and arithmetic in Sefer Yuhasin. In the Book of Jubilees, Enoch was the inventor of the art of writing. This is also so according to Masonic lore. The correlation of these accomplishments of Enoch and the meaning of the term Maya in different cultures is immediately apparent and surely not a coincidence.
The Midrash explains how Enoch obtained his knowledge. In The Zohar, Rabbi Aba said,
A book was indeed sent down to Adam through which he discerned and comprehended the supernal wisdom. [This is the book of The Generations Of Adam.] This book later came into the hands of the sons of Elohim, the sages of their generation, who were priviledged to learn from it and to glean the supernal wisdom. They grasped it and comprehended it. This book was brought down by the guardian of the secrets who is the angel Raziel and was given to Adam in the Garden of Eden. Three guardian angels went before him and guarded the book so that the external forces would not have access to it.
When Adam was expelled from the Garden of Eden, he still held on to the book. Yet as he stepped out, the book flew away from him. He prayed and cried out to his Master, and the book was returned to him again so that this wisdom would not be forgotten and the people would endeavor to attain knowledge of their Master.
We have been told that Enoch had a book, which originated from the same place as that of the Generations of Adam. And this book contains the inner secrets of wisdom. (The Zohar, Vol 1, The Kabbalah Centre International Inc., New York, 2003, p455-456)
Shem, a son of Noah, was a fourth generation descendant of Enoch. Eber was a great grandchild of Shem. Eber's first born son was Peleg and his second son was Yoktan (Genesis 10:25). Peleg, פלג, comes from the root meaning to divide. The Torah commentators tell us the Eber prophetically named his first born son, meaning divide, because during the days of Peleg's life, the earth was divided (Genesis 10:25). Yoktan's name is based on the Hebrew root יקטן meaning to make small or belittle oneself in the sense of making oneself humble. From this root arises the adjective קטן , meaning small. The Torah commentators tell us that Eber named his second son Yoktan because he prophetically knew that Yoktan would lead a humble life. Thereby he was rewarded with 13 sons (Genesis 10:26-29).
The Torah does not give information to exactly place Yoktan's time of birth or death, but from the geneologies and ages given in the Torah, his older brother Peleg was born in 1757 and died in 1996 on the Jewish calender. Sefer Hayahsar says that after the incident of the Tower of Babel Peleg died. From this we infer that the building of the Tower of Babel begins just before 1996 on the Jewish calendar which is 1765 BCE on the proleptic Gregorian calendar. This clearly implies that if Yoktan lived as long as Peleg, then Yoktan lived during the time of the Tower of Babel.
Shem's brother was Ham. He had a son Cush. And among the son's of Cush was Nimrod, נמרד, the mighty man and hunter. The root of Nimrod's name is Marad, מרד, which means rebellion. Nimrod was a rebel against God. Nimrod believed that man could survive without God. It was under Nimrod's direction that the Tower of Babel was built so that the people could make a name. It is written
Make no mention of the name of the gods of others. (Exodus 23:13)
The commentators tell us that name in this context means idol. For them to build an idol means they wanted to replace God.
The Jewish historian Flavius Josephus, writes that it was at the time that Nimrod was the king and was teaching that it was cowardice to submit to God, that the tower was built. It was built under his organization and direction.
Now the multitude were very ready to follow the determination of Nimrod, and to esteem it a piece of cowardice to submit to God; and being in any degree negligent about the work. And, by reason of the multitude of hands employed in it, it grew very high, sooner than any one could expect.
God saw that their purpose in building the Tower was not good. He divided and confused the people by making them speak many different languages. This stopped the building of the city and the development of the Tower. Then God scattered the people all over the world (Genesis 11:8-9).
The scattering of the people, each people speaking a different language led to the 70 nations, each nation coming from one of the 70 descendents of Noah listed in Genesis chapter 10. The division of the earth (Genesis 10:25) which happened during the life of Peleg, is sometimes explained as this division of the people into 70 nations. But the Hebrew root פלג also can mean division by water. Putting the two meanings together, we get a picture of people being divided by language and then the land being divided by water, physically separating at least some of the groups of the peoples. This is one way that we can understand how all the continents of the world were populated with speaking people. We say speaking people here because Jewish tradition teaches that the distinguishing characteristic of man is that man is a speaking person. Other levels of life may communicate, even with sound, but not with all the linguistic capabilities that man has.
The beginning ancient Mayan civilization occupied the eastern third of Mesoamerica, primarily the Yucatan Peninsula. The earliest archeological evidence associated with the Mayan civilization was discovered in Belize and is currently dated about 1200 BCE. There are some who think that the beginning of the ancient Mayan civilization was about 2000 BCE, but there is no hard evidence for this. According to the Torah, the scattering of the people after the Tower of Babel must have occured around 1765 BCE. So it is possible that one of the Yoktan's 13 sons and his clan was scattered, wandered around, eventually settling in the eastern third of Mesomerica, and named the area Yucatan in honor of his father Yoktan. Particularly interesting is that there is a Mayan word babel and its meaning is confusion, exactly the meaning of Babel in Hebrew. This is surely not a coincidence.
And the earth was of one tongue, and of common purpose. And it came to pass, when they migrated from the east, they found a valley in the land of Shinar, and settled there. And each one said to his neighbour: Come, let us make brick, and bake them with fire. And the brick served them as stone, and the bitumen served them as morter. And they said: Come, let us build a city and a tower, (מגדל) with its top in the heavens: and let us make a name for ourselves lest we be dispersed across the whole earth.
And the Lord came down to see the city and the tower, which the children of Man were building. And He said: Behold, they are one people, with one language for all: and they have begun to do this! Neither will they leave off from their designs, till they accomplish them in deed. Come let us descend, and there confound their language, that they should not understand one another's language.
And so the Lord scattered them from there over the face of the whole earth; and they ceased to build the city. And therefore the name thereof was called Babel, because there the language of the whole earth was confounded: and from thence the Lord scattered them over the face of the whole earth. (Genesis 11:1-9)
The Torah speaks of the city and the tower, the tower presumbly to be in the center of the city. When God scattered the people, the building of the city stopped. But what happened to the tower? In the pseudepigrapha, The Book of the Jubilees, we read,
And the Lord sent a mighty wind against the tower and overthrew it upon the earth, and behold it was between Asshur and Babylon in the land of Shinar, and they called its name Overthrow.
It is explained that the name Overthrow is a play on the preceding verb overthrew. But the real name of the tower was Babel.
Flavius Josephus quotes from the Sybil, the name given to pagan oracular seeresses.
The gods sent sent storms of wind and overthrew the tower and gave every one his peculiar language.
The Talmud tells us differently.
A third of the tower was burnt, a third sunk [into the earth] and a third is still standing. (Sanhedran 109a)
It is interesting that what the Torah calls מגדל, translated as tower, is not the kind of structure in our day that we call tower. A building or structure that is much higher than it is in cross-section and high relative to its surroundings is named tower. In our times, this includes narrow steel towers such as those used for antennas and electrical tower transmission lines. But the biblical meaning of tower is not that. It really corresponds to the first generic meaning of tower: a building or structure that is much higher than it is in cross-section. The renaissance painters often portrayed the Tower of Babel as a structure with circular cross-section, such as that shown here by the Flemish painter Lucas Van Valckenborch. But their portrayal may not be historically accurate. Indeed the stepped pyramid structure, called ziggarats, may be more accurate, similar to the Mayan pryamids.
As mentioned earlier, Yoktan himself had 13 children. Among them are Ophir and Chavilah. The Torah commentators associate these children with the Americas. In the book Seder Hadorot, The Order of The Generations, and in the book Maor Einayim, Illumination of the Eyes, it says that the new world (the Americas) that Columbus discovered is really the land of Ophir. And it is to this land that King Solomon sent his boats once in three years (I Kings 10:11-12) to bring back precious corals from the sea which he used for the temple. If indeed the Land of Ophir corresponds to the Americas, then King Solomon sent his boats to the Belize Barrier coral reefs. The Belize Barrier Reef is a 300 kilometers (186 mi) long section of the 900 kilometers (560 mi) long Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System, which is continuous from Cancun on the northeast tip of the Yucatan Peninsula through the Riviera Maya up to offshore Guatemala, making it the second largest coral reef system in the world. From this perspective, it is no surprise that one of the 31 states of Mexico is named Yucatan, and is located just north of the Yucatan Peninsula. The Yucatan Peninsula is one of the areas populated by the ancient preclassic Mayan people and as well populated by the later Mayan people of the classic period. The Yucatan is known to have been named from the Nahuatl (Aztec) word Yokatlan, meaning place of richness. The Yucatan itself does not have any precious metal deposits. However, the mountains of Veracruz, where the early Olmec people lived and the area north of Yucatan where the later Aztecs lived do have gold deposits.
As a side note, America in Hebrew is spelled אמריקה and thus has gematria 356. The land of the Chavilah, in Hebrew is spelled ארץ החוילה. This has gematria 355 and one more for the kolel make 356. The land of the Chavilah and America have the same gematria. But there is something yet more interesting. The land of the Chavilah first appears in Genesis.
A river issues forth from Eden to water the garden, and from there it is divided and becomes four headwaters. The name of the first is Pishon, the one that encircles the whole land of Chavilah, where the gold is. The gold of that land is good. (Genesis 2:10-12)
Recall that one of the early motivations for the Spanish conquest of Central America and Mexico was that the conquistadors were interested in pillaging all the gold that could be found. That is why they were particularly interested in conquering the Aztecs, who lived north of the Mayans once they determined that the Aztecs had more gold.
One wonders, therefore, whether there is any evidence from the Mayan culture of an historical connection of them to the Biblical ancestors of the Jews. Indeed, there are at least two such connections. One is found in a manuscript written 1554 in the Quiche language of Guatemala. The Quiche people are descendants of the Mayans. The manuscript contains a brief history of their origin to their greatest king who ruled in the second half of the fifteenth century. This manuscript was translated into Spanish by Dionisio Jose Chonay and into English by Delia Goetz. The title of the manuscript is Title of the Lords of Totonicapan. Here is what it says about the connection:
These then were the three nations of the Quiches and they came from where the sun rises, descendants of Israel, of the same language and customs. ... When they arrived at the edge of the sea, Balam-Qitze touched it with his staff and at once a path opened which then closed up again for thus the great God wished it to be done, because they were the sons of Abraham and Jacob. (Delia Goetz, The Annals of the Cakchiquels; Title of the Lords of Totonicapan University of Oklahoma Press, Norman, 1953, p170.)
The name Balam-Qitze, a leader in the description given in Title of the Lords of Totonicapan, has a Hebrew cognate. Baal, בעל, is a Hebrew word meaning Lord, Master, owner, possessor. The Torah discusses idol worship of the principal Canaanite idol called Baal. There is also a biblical character Balaam (Numbers 22:5). There is an adjective in Hebrew Qatzar, קצר, which has a form Qitzar which is cognate to Qitze. This leader's name is then Short Master. The Mayans are genetically short measuring about 4 foot 8 inches from archaeological skeletal remains. They were the pygmies of Central America.
To put some perspective on the dates. The Tower of Babel is around 1996 on the Jewish calendar which is 1765 BCE on the Gregorian calendar. Abraham is born in 1948 on the Jewish calendar which is 1822 BCE on the Gregorian calendar, some 48 years before the Tower of Babel. Jacob dies in 2255 on the Jewish calendar which is 1515 BCE on the Gregorian calendar, some 259 years after the Tower of Babel. The history transmitted in Title of the Lords of Totonicapan mentions Jacob. So this history must take place not much earlier than 1515 BCE.
There is another reference linking the Mayans to the biblical ancestors of the Jews. It is in a book manuscript dating from 1566 by the priest Friar Diego de Landa. This is the priest who is infamous for what is known as the Auto de fe event of July 1562 at Mani, at which in addition to burning some 5000 Mayan idols, he burned 27 Mayan hieroglyphic scrolls. Friar de Landa wrote a book whose title in English translation is Yucatan Before and After the Conquest. In the beginning of the book he writes;
Some old men of Yucatan say that they have heard from their ancestors that this country was peopled by a certain race who came from the East whom God delivered by opening for them twelve roads through the sea. If this is true, all the inhabitants of the Indies must be of Jewish descent because, the straits of Magellan having been passed, they must have spread over more than 2000 leagues of territory now governed by Spain. (Friar Deigo De Landa, Relacion de las cosas de Yucatan, Yucatan Before and After the Conquest, English translation by William Gates, Dover, New York 1978, p8.)
All this hints that it was the some of the descendants of Yoktan, particularly descendants of his children Ophir and Chavilah, who eventually settled in the America's carrying with them some of the knowledge of their great ancestor Enoch. It was they who were the biblical forbearers of the Mayans.
With the correlation Julian date of 584,283, the ending of the Mayan calender is Dec 21, 2012. This corresponds to the year 5773 on the Jewish calendar. However, the public discussion refers most often to 2012 and 2012 corresponds to the year 5772-5773 on the Jewish calendar. The sensational part of this public discussion concerns the prophetic interpretations people have made: everything from the ending of the world to the time of enlightenment.
Carlos Barrios, an indigenous Mayan tradition keeper, says that the Mayan Daykeepers view the Dec. 21, 2012 date as a rebirth, the start of the World of the Fifth Sun. He says it will be the start of a new era resulting from and signified by the solar meridian crossing the galactic equator, and the earth aligning itself with the center of the galaxy. At sunrise on December 21, 2012 for the first time in 26,000 years the Sun rises to conjunct the intersection of the Milky Way and the plane of the ecliptic. This cosmic cross is considered to be an embodiment of the Sacred Tree, The Tree of Life, a tree remembered in all the world's spiritual traditions. Some observers say this alignment with the heart of the galaxy in 2012 will open a channel for cosmic energy to flow through the earth, cleansing it and all that dwells upon it, raising all to a higher level of vibration. (Carlos Barrios)
Here, we are not concerned with the prophecies. Rather we are concerned with the event that indeed the Mayan long count calendar recycles in 2012 and that there are many public discussions about this.
Here we explore the extent to which this event is encoded as a Torah code. Our first goal is to make an a priori experiment exploring thousands of key word combination sets to see if there are any compact tables. If there are we will show them. Our second goal is to use this experiment among others to develop a test statistic from which we can determine a p-value for findings from the overall experiment.
In general, an event has the event categories of WHO WHAT WHEN WHERE and HOW. For our Mayan Calendar event, we only use the WHO WHAT WHEN and WHERE event categories. We subdivide the WHEN into two event categories WHEN START and WHEN END. The following table shows the key words we use for each event category.
The topic class consists of the WHAT event category. By our protocol, this means that one key word from the WHAT event category must appear in every table. Since we require a key word combination set to have at least 2 keywords, there are 4*4*9*5*3-2=2158 key word combination sets for the experiment. There are four auxiliary event categories: WHO, WHERE, WHEN START, and WHEN END. There are sixteen subsets of a set having four elements. So the event category lattice is a lattice of 16 nodes and is shown below.
For each of these 16 event category combinations, we will show the best table if that best table has a p-value of less than 20/1,000 in an experiment with 1000 trials. If the best table has a very small p-value we may also show the next to best table if its p-value is small.
Mayan Calendar Torah Code Experiments
Maximum Row Skip = 10 Maximum Column Skip = 10
The search produced a cylinder size of 3. With expected number of ELSs set to 50, the probability that a text from the ELS random placement text population would have as compact a table as that produced by the Torah text is 825.5/1,000.
The search produced a cylinder size of 21,378. With expected number of ELSs set to 50, the probability that a text from the ELS random placement text population would have as compact a table as that produced by the Torah text is 147/1,000.
Categories: Judaism & Kabbalah